Audience Dialogue

Participative Marketing for Local Radio
Appendix: Further reading

This page began its life as the Appendix to Participative Marketing for Local Radio, but is expanding into a list of books and web pages connected to local radio marketing. Some of the books are out of print, but you may find them in a large library. Others of these publications are available only on the Internet.

On this page...
1 Marketing in general
2 Community radio in general
3 Major websites for community radio
4 Audience research
5 Advertising
6 Fundraising
7 Internet marketing

1. Marketing in general

Shel Horowitz: Grassroots Marketing. AWM Books, USA, 2000. An excellent book on low-cost local marketing, mainly for print media. See also his website www.frugalfun.com

Nedra Klein Weinreich: Hands-On Social Marketing. Sage, California, 1999. A useful book with a lot of examples, designed mainly for welfare-oriented organizations, but also of interest to community radio. It has worksheets that could be very helpful in creating a marketing plan. (See also our page on social marketing.)

There are practically no books or articles on the view of marketing as communication, or on "participative marketing" in the sense used in this book. However, the Rockefeller Foundation has published several reports on the similar concept of Communication for Social Change. From their website at www.rockfound.org you can download these reports, including Making Waves: an interesting book by Alfonsio Dagron, with 50 examples, many related to radio.

If my approach to marketing has interested you, the book that comes closest is Total Relationship Marketing by Evert Gummesson (Butterworth Heinemann, UK, 1999). Though it hardly mentions radio, and doesn't actually tell you how to do marketing, this is one of the most thought provoking books I've read on marketing. It's the sort of book where you read a page, then have to put it down to think through the ideas.

2. Community radio in general

Community radio manual. A South African manual, on the Web at www.osf.org.za/ Publications/Default.asp. This is a detailed "how to do it" book. Five of its 16 chapters are relevant to marketing: those on audience research, marketing, community building, fundraising, and producing commercials. The chapter on marketing covers similar ground to chapter 6 in this book.

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Steve Ahern (ed): Making Radio. Allen and Unwin, Australia, 2000. A book aimed at community and local radio in Australia. It includes chapters on copywriting, programming, sales, and promotions.

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Eryl Price-Davies and Jo Tacchi: Community radio in a global context. Community Media Association (UK), 2004. An interesting comparison of how community radio is funded, in the six countries they studied.

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The African Radio Managers Handbook: a Guide to Sustainable Radio. Radio For Development, South Africa, c.2000. Looks good, based on the description and contents on the web, but I haven't been able to see a copy of the book itself.

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Unesco Community Radio Handbook. A useful booklet for people wanting to set up community radio stations - hard to find online. It's on Unesco's community radio website at www.unesco.org/webworld/ publications/community_radio_handbook.pdf

S.T. Kwame Boafo (ed): Promoting Community media in Africa. Unesco, Paris, 2000. An interesting book on the development of community media, mainly radio - but it's mainly a historical review, it's not only about Africa, and its concept of promoting community media is a very abstract one! It's available on the Web (as a PDF Acrobat file) at
www.unesco.org/webworld/publications/community_media/index.html

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Peter M Lewis and Jerry Booth: The Invisible Medium: Public, Commercial, and Community Radio. Macmillan, London, 1989. A descriptive book, not specifically about marketing, but it has some interesting ideas that could be used in marketing strategy. I liked the description of the Canadian station that broadcast its daily breakfast program from a cafe: anybody could wander in and make suggestions or comments.

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Achieving sustainable community radio is the topic addressed by Brigitte Jallov in her 2012 book EMPOWERMENT RADIO – Voices building a community  Birgitte is a highly experienced social communications and community radio adviser who has assisted communities worldwide for over 30 years.  This book sets out to demonstrate why community radio during the past decade has repeatedly been recommended as a powerful catalyst for development – ‘the missing link’ between development support being provided and change actually taking place.

The book has been written with a desire to share powerful insights and experiences that can help get a genuine community radio off the ground – and keep it on air.  It offers a step-by-step presentation of the central conceptual and practical aspects that are essential for creating a sustainable, community-run, well managed, simple and effective platform for the community’s voices, with space for debate on issues of importance that range from urgent ad hoc problems, over continued debate on community development, and onward toward a celebration of the local culture.  It also complements our book on Participative Marketing for Local Radio.

You can learn more and buy a copy of the book via Birgitte's website, click here

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Radio Management.  Are you managing or plan to manage a radio station?  If so, a practical new book titled Managing Radio by UK academics and radio practitioners Brian Lister, Caroline Mitchell and Tony O'Shea may be very helpful to you.  This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the practice and theory of managing radio stations, public, commercial and community-based. The first section provides an overview of the radio sector in the United Kingdom and presents the core concepts of radio station management. The second and core part of the book is a detailed and comprehensive practical guide to the different elements of managing commercial and community radio. It provides useful tools and examples of management practice, ranging from 'station and organisational structures' and 'financial management, sales and fundraising' to 'managing news and phone-ins' and 'knowing and researching your audience'. The last section uses three case studies (a local radio, a community radio, the BBC 6 music programme) to illustrate different station structures and management approaches. The clear structure, plain language and the illustrative examples make this guide a useful tool for any person interested in radio management and it may also give advice on setting up a station from scratch. 

http://www.soundconcepts.ltd.uk/managingradio/ 

The book complements our book Participative Marketing for Local Radio, we provide a breadth and depth of knowledge in specific areas that are only briefly addressed by Managing Radio. You can buy the book in hardcopy form, as an e-book or if you can't afford it, it can be read online.

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Martin Ssemakula and Ian Nkata of AkiSema Media in Uganda, Africa, have written a book titled COMMON MISTAKES IN BROADCASTING AND HOW TO OVERCOME THEM -  A Manual for Radio Station Owners and Broadcast Practitioners 

The publication is based on the experience of Uganda in developing its community radio sector and real cases, but I believe may be very relevant to other countries in Africa and elsewhere.  It outlines what the radio stations did in a range of areas including audience research, and advises what they should have done in concise terms.  You may be able to identify mistakes made by your radio station and learn how you can remedy them.  

The book is available as a free download from this link Common Mistakes in Broadcasting Manual_Final _UMDF_EED-1.pdf and send any questions to ian.nkata(@)gmail.com (remove brackets when emailing).

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Near FM, in Ireland, has an excellent manual online: the Community Media Participatory Learning Manual. Its chapter on administration has useful basic information on social audits, and related areas that are useful when creating a marketing plan.

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Community Radio Support Centre/NEFEJ in Nepal, supported by Free Voice, The Netherlands, produces a range of topical books and manuals to support the effective governance, planning, organisational development, functioning and performance management of community radio. The resources are based on the Nepal context but would be of value to community radio journalists, managers and leadership worldwide. You can browse and download copies (free, most are in English) from the website here: http://www.nefej.org/en/crsc/crsc-publications

3. Major websites for community radio

AMARC - the world federation of community broadcasters: www.amarc.org
Community Broadcasting Association of Australia: www.cbaa.org.au
Community Media Association (Britain): www.commedia.org.uk
National Federation of Community Broadcasters (US): www.nfcb.org
Communications Initiative (Canada): www.comminit.com
Community Media (Canada): www.community-media.com 

Creative Radio is an email discussion list for community radio around the world, averaging several messages a day. To subscribe, send a blank email message (without signatures or attachments) to creative-radio-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

4. Audience research

Dennis List: Know Your Audience: a Practical Guide to Media Research. This is our detailed book on audience research, designed particularly for use in developing countries. Most of it's on the Web, at www.audiencedialogue.org/kya.html
There's also an Indonesian edition, published by UNESCO in Jakarta. 

Our summary book Quick Guide to Audience Research is freely available on this website, click here to download it (PDF).

If you live in North America (or elsewhere) and find that Know your Audience is too detailed for you, try the Listener Survey Toolkit, online at www.wksu.org/toolkit

Walrus Research - a US research company specializing in community radio work. It has some interesting reports on its website at www.walrusresearch.com

There's an excellent index of radio ratings terms at www.slcc.edu/comm/telelab/radio_ratings.htm 

5. Advertising, specially on radio

The most widely available book on radio advertising seems to be Radio Advertising: The Authoritative Handbook, by Pete Schulberg. I haven't yet seen a copy, but judging from reviews, It's mostly about commercial radio stations in the USA.

Susan Tyler Eastman et. al: Promotion and Marketing for Broadcasting and Cable. Focal Press, USA, 1999. Has one chapter on Promotion in Public Television and Radio. Despite the promising title, this book seems to be rather academic and theoretical. I keep requesting this book from the library, but it never turns up - I'm beginning to doubt that it actually exists.

Gene F Seehafer and Jack W Laemarr: Successful Radio and Television Advertising. McGraw Hill, New York, 1959. It's only about advertising (not about the rest of marketing), it's only about America, it's 40 years out of date, it doesn't mention community radio, and a lot of it's about TV. Even so, it's still the most comprehensive book that I've seen on this subject.

J Scott Armstrong has a new book (probably to be published in 2007), Persuasive Advertising: Evidence-based Principles for Advertising. It has several hundred recommendations about how to advertise - all based on evidence from scholarly studies. I've read a draft version, and was greatly impressed. This book is more credible than all the rest put together. In the meantime, you can find a lot of the content at www.advertisingprinciples.com.

6. Fundraising

The Pledgewell Institute in the USA has an online handbook for fundraising, based on the results of extensive research into minority audiences and public broadcasting. URL www.pledgewell.org/tac/intro/intro.html

For more on Program Theory (mentioned at the end of chapter 8), the University of Idaho Extension department has a 5-page PDF explanation by Paul F. McCawley. For a slightly different approach (in a lot more detail) the US-based Kellogg Foundation has a clearly written report on how to set up a Program Logic Model. This would be more useful for a specific campaign (e.g in public health) than for a radio station as a whole.

7. Internet marketing

Web Marketing Today - www.wilsonweb.com - a US website with a lot of practical information on internet marketing, and a newsletter you can get by email. Nothing specifically on radio, but if your station has a website this could be very useful.