Audience Dialogue

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Know Your Audience | Participative Marketing for Local Radio

The Audience Dialogue Blog

News and Views from the desk of John Goslino

This page contains mainly short articles and responses to relevant news and developments that we hope will be of benefit, some link to new or revised pages.                                      

You can also subscribe to our free periodic email newsletters on Knowing Your Audience and Participative Marketing for Local Radio, just contact us to receive these.

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Situational analyses (or SWOT) can be very useful for community media and indeed other organisations.   

A SWOT Analysis is a simple and powerful business technique that has been around for over 40 years. Whilst ideal for a radio station you can also do it for a specific radio program or even yourself as an individual, to map your career development. The idea is to be realistic about the situation and environment, whether you are a new station in Bangladesh or a long established one in the USA. The goal is to have a cool clear-headed base for next steps.  To read more about this visit our evolving page about this useful but under-used method.


Community Score Cards is a community-based participatory tool used for holding local authorities accountable for providing quality services in areas like health, agriculture and education.

Play the video below that describes and discusses the different stages of using the tool with actual examples from Nepal.  The tool is time intensive and dialogue-based, and it may not be suitable for every situation, but it is a positive approach that can support better outcomes and not just for poor people.  Consensus groups are a supportive technique that can be used to understand the consensus that exists within a community on performance indicators, as example.



Sustainable funding of community-based media is an issue the world over, and also on the Isle of Man apparently, refer the article below via the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association.

That kind of situation is nothing new, and with a concerted strategy Manx Radio can develop a more viable model less reliant on public funding. But in my experience, there are many agencies and media that prefer to lobby and plead for more public money rather than develop a strong business model. Audience Dialogue has been assisting media overcome issues such as that of Manx Radio for about 20 years. Maybe we need another 20 years?

Our resources on how to achieve this are available from this page.


Media assistance - insights into what works and could be done better

There is still a lot of money (and time) invested in so called "media assistance" and "capacity building" that offers little real and sustainable value to media in the developing world. A report by Mary Myers addresses the challenges of supporting independent media in countries where media freedoms are restricted, based on country case studies in Bangladesh, Cambodia, South Sudan, Syria and Uganda, several of which we'd like to work in, especially to support community media sustainability.

According to this report (I have underlined some items that we strive to address or overcome, and add comments in brackets), the dilemmas of foreign support include short-term donor strategies, the lack of reliable local partners (often due to lack of training), the patchy evidence of the positive impact of past media support (no surprise that most agencies report positive outcomes of their work, even if there is no evidence), the management of inflammatory media coverage and sometimes hate speech in countries that face inter-ethnic tensions or sectarian conflict.  

Report also outlines strategies that have had some success, like foreign and UN broadcasting, training and advocacy from the outside, emphasising neutral and 'public interest' topics when working from inside a country, and supporting local rights organisations and media advocacy groups.

The study concludes, amongst other factors, that media should be a key area of political economy analysis, that media assistance should be incorporated more explicitly within broader development systems, and that support should concentrate on media outlets and not just on individual journalists.  I only hope this report (click here to access it, PDF document) has resonance amongst donors and aid agencies, as media assistance can be much more effective


Facebook and Community Radio

Many organisations know or believe that social media like Facebook is one of the best ways to connect with their customers and members. Often many people in the radio target audience use Facebook much more than they listen to radio.  Facebook is a free business tool.

However, in our experience many organisations forget the "marketing" in social media marketing and think Facebook success is about publishing content and getting as many people as possible to "Like" their Facebook fan page. 

My advice is that you need to consider how Facebook can help you achieve specific station goals, that is, success with Facebook is not just getting more fans and followers to a page. Just building a list is of little value unless you do something with it.  This means you need to build a community, engage your audience and create word-of-mouth by persuading your audience to share your message with their friends.

This all relates very well to what community radio needs to do, but how can your station take practical advantage of Facebook, to link activity to a meaningful outcome?  A couple of ideas to get you thinking.

1. Create separate Facebook pages each about a specific topic.

As we've noted before it is more important for community radio to sell programs rather than the station itself.   The community is not interested in a station per se, but is keen to listen to programs that interest them.

Facebook allows a station to build a community of interest around topics/subjects and find prospective listeners who can be invited to tune in to programs/presenters that address that topic, such as reducing teenage pregnancy or finding local jobs.

Linking the Facebook page to a specific page on the station website allows people to follow through to access more information about the programs, listen to sample programs and subscribe, such as to receive an email newsletter or meet the presenter.

2. Running campaigns for specific (social) purposes. 

This requires that you use a third-party application to install a tab on your Facebook page.  Once you install a tab you can publish an offer or a piece of engaging content (say an article about the impact of one of your programs on community behaviour, helping lives etc) that is designed to get page (program) fans to take a specific action (for example, buy a podcast of a program, make a donation, renew a membership, print a sponsor's coupon). 

You can also "Like-gate" your offer, requiring users to "Like" your Facebook page in exchange for a free gift, say a podcast of a program.  But getting more "Likes" is only one benefit of running a campaign, as it is important to get people to participate and share your offer or content with their friends. 

As mentioned above, getting someone to "Like" your page (or program) is really just list-building.  What really matters is what you do with your fans.  For example, if you lead a fan to print a membership coupon or program voucher, chances are the fan will become a paid member or program buyer.

And if you can also get that same fan (person) to share your offer you will likely attract new fans and prospects—and, therefore, potential new listeners and members.  People trust recommendations from friends, and a social campaign is a great way to inspire your station's fans to create word-of-mouth referrals for you.

What do you need to keep in mind?  At least two things.

Facebook is not the same as having your own website (or an alternative to a website for an organisation).  Facebook is controlled by Facebook, and Facebook determines what you can and cannot do.

Ideally Facebook can help drive people to your website, where you can do a lot more, and get people to take a specific action as noted above.

And secondly, whilst Facebook is mainly free to use (at least for the time being), being effective with Facebook requires constant work to publish, respond and connect.  If you are unable to put in a consistent effort then we suggest you don't bother.  Your fans will soon get bored and forget about you.


What information about audiences/stakeholders should a community services organisation collect, and how should it do so?

We had a recent request along these lines to inform a strategic planning exercise.  The not-for-profit organisation wanted to learn more about its audiences/stakeholders to provide direction on key issues (ie exploratory) and also shed light on specific new strategy ideas to generate more income.  The organisation had previously relied substantively on ad-hoc verbal discussions with stalkeholders including members.

A key strategy we suggested was the use of consensus groups to determine what its key stakeholders, in particular funding agencies, sponsors and program developers, agreed on.  What general issues, opportunities and strategies influential parties felt were important to that organisation in question. Learning about the consensus that exists in any group is important and can be done by non-research specialists, unlike focus groups.

We've also created a new page to briefly cover the activities a community services organisation could implement to better understand its audience, aptly called audience research for community organisations.

Innovative Audience (Customer) Research

A restaurant in the northern Dutch city of Groningen has carried out a week-long experiment during which diners could decide themselves how much to pay for their meal. The experiment was designed to attract more customers and to improve the dining experience. 

During the week, says Keimpe Postema, the owner of the Feithuis Restaurant, "turnover fell, but now we have a better insight into what our customers desire".   We have to say this is a very good example of engaging with customers and receiving valuable (even confronting) direct feedback about your menu, cooking, service and value for money.  The restaurant may have lost some money initially but is the wiser now and if it applies the lessons learned it should be able to gain more customers and certainly more repeat business longer-term.  You can learn more at the link below.

Community radio performance measurement - what can you do?

A common issue for community radio stations is how to reasonably measure its performance.   This is very important if you are keen to continuously improve what you do and how you impact the community.

If your radio station does not have clear, measurable performance indicators then maybe it could look to implement some.

Measuring the social or other impacts (change-causing effects) of the radio station (notably its programs) in the community is difficult but not impossible, something we'll address in a future edition.

However, measuring your success as a community radio station, not as an agent of change, is very possible, even if you do not operate specific business-like goals or targets.

The more important indicators you could establish relates to audience-related outcomes.

The audience size, measured in terms of reach, is perhaps the most important and readily achievable.  Most community radios are trying to get more people (often within a defined areas) to listen to their station, even if they just listen to one program or for short periods.  Some radios target specific audiences within the community, such as women or young people.

Secondly, listener satisfaction is another important indicator that can be understood by surveys.  Has this changed over the past year or since the last survey?  Listener clubs are not necessarily a good guide to this, see below.

What else can you measure, to keep it simple and yet effective?  We suggest the following be considered as success factors:

Income sources - have they increased over the past year?  That is,  where money and in-kind contributions are generated, not necessarily the amount of income as this could be affected by an ad hoc or single event.  These should be from sources independent from the stations owners/board members.

Number of inquiries received from prospective sponsors/advertisers - has the number and prestige of potential sponsors increased?  Are more public and private organisations as well as NGOs approaching us to support a program we run?

Listener feedback in general - has there been an increase in number of comments received from listeners, both positive, including suggestions, and negative?  Positive feedback is obviously desired by radios but there is equal value in negative comments, these suggests the station and its programs are impacting the community, and that people are concerned enough to write or call about it.  Analysis of various feedbacks/inputs can tell a lot about where the station is positioned in the community.

Community integration - is the station receiving more unsolicited requests from others in the same community about broadcasting, partnering or working/volunteering at the station?  Have station visitors increased?

Any measure could, by itself,  be misleading.  However, if all the above indicators are trending upwards then you know you are succeeding, and you have a good platform to work with.

Another tip.

We suggest station governors and especially management step aside for a few days each year or even every 6 months or so, maybe go to a quiet place far away, and consider your community radio station, what it offers and how it may be perceived by
A) A new listener, someone who by accident happens to listen to the station, and
B) A new sponsor/advertiser/funder, and one who may have a project or program in mind.

This should result in some fresh thinking about what the station could do or do better in the new year.